ISTVÁN KENYERES THE FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REFORMS AND REVENUES OF FERDINAND I IN HUNGARY The article is the first attempt since the basic work by Ignác Acsády (Magyarország pénzügyei I. Ferdinánd uralkodása alatt, 1526–1564 [Hungary’s finances during the reign of Ferdinand I], Budapest, 1888) to outline Ferdinand I’s financial administrative activities in Hungary and to estimate state revenues during his reign. In the long term Ferdinand I could keep only a part of the country under his reign, and by the end of his reign he was in possession of less than one-third of the territory of the medieval kingdom of Hungary, a fact that also determined the size of state incomes. The Habsburg ruler attempted to establish a financial administration in line with the demands of the early modern period, by establishing the Hungarian (Royal) Chamber in 1528. The initial reforms, however, did not lead to results for some time, because a decisive part of the treasury incomes was borrowed (e.g. the “tricesima” or customs duties, the chambers of mines and mintage) or had been offered up for sale (treasury estates), while the Hungarian Estates had acquired the right to dispose of the extraordinary tax (or subsidy), which in the Middle Ages was still the most important source of revenue for the State. An additional factor was that the Hungarian Chamber proved insufficiently effective at the outset. In the 1530s and 1540s, Ferdinand I attempted on several occasions to reform the chamber administration; he wished to acquire influence over the subsidy and recover the tricesima. In 1548/1549 there was a significant change in Ferdinand’s financial policy, leading to a dramatic increase in revenues. An important aspect of this was the reform of the Hungarian Chamber (in 1548) and the introduction of regional financial administrative bodies (for Slavonia, Upper Hungary and Transylvania) and the greater role played within Hungary by the Chamber of Lower Austria. It was then that he managed to redeem the borrowed tricesima and the levying and collection of the subsidy also fell under his control. The number of treasury estates also grew, particularly when Maria, Ferdinand’s younger sister, renounced her enormous possessions in Hungary in favour of her older brother. The period also saw the formation of the treasury estates system and the reform of the management of the treasury estates. The article also contains estimates of Ferdinand I’s revenues in Hungary, according to which Ferdinand’s revenues in the early 1550s (when Transylvania was under Habsburg control) reached 600 000 Hungarian Florins (750 000 Rhenish Florins). Thus, out of all his countries, Hungary was, at that time, Ferdinand’s largest source of revenue.